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Posts Tagged ‘disaster risk reduction’

A sustainable and practical approach to integrating CCA and DRR appears to still be “in its infancy”[i] The 2019 document published by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies points out how the challenge of addressing climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) in a coordinated way is more a desideratum than a reality.

Let us start with climate change. The good news is the Nobel prize given to Syukuro Manabe of Princeton University, Klaus Hasselmann of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, and Giorgio Parisi of Sapienza University of Rome for their work on climate change. The award was very timely since COP26, the UN summit on climate change, will be held next month in Great Britain. It will certainly be an added incentive for governments and institutions to commit to real actions fighting climate change.

But I think those grandiose actions tend to be built on quicksand There is probably already enough legislation, at least in the developed world which is by far the biggest culprit of climate change, and surely a good number of pledges by big corporations aiming at reducing their carbon footprint. But I think that it is at the base of the pyramid where action should be taken. Consumers are the big culprits in climate change. Consumers are those who vote for that big, oversized car and that plastic-wrapped apple in the supermarket.

Let us move on to disaster risk reduction. I have written several times about the fact that the first first-responders are the people living in the area at risk. If those people keep dumping debris in the dried-up riverbed; if those same people keep razing forests and substituting them for yearly crops, then the effects of an otherwise slightly higher than usual rainfall can be devastating. I am sure that, again at least in the developed world, there is enough legislation today to prosecute those actions; I am not so sure about the actual prosecution of those actions by the authorities. The inaction is prompted by the fact that society condones those actions. Again, the legislation and its implementation are built on quicksand.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its annual climate change conference (COP), as well as the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) as the custodian of the Sendai Framework, are all very good. They promote actions by governments and corporations to act in both areas. But those two areas are intertwingled, as the above-mentioned document “Literature Review on Aligning Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)”i contends. My point is that where the connection is stronger is at the base: the citizen. Only with clear and strong action at citizen level, through education at the base, will we be able to simultaneously tackle climate change and disaster risk reduction effectively.


[i] Literature Review on Aligning Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) http://repo.floodalliance.net/jspui/handle/44111/4100

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The Heat and Health Series published recently by The Lancet focuses on the devastating effects of heat on human beings. It is estimated that “54% of the global population [will be] exposed to more than 20 days of dangerous heat per year by 2100”. A strategy of disaster risk reduction (DRR) is needed because “Society must adapt in ways that not only enable it to survive, but thrive, in a much hotter future.”

Fighting heatwaves has brought up another example of the divide between rich and poor societies, as well as between rich and poor individuals within societies. Air conditioners are by far the preferred tool in fighting heat. But they are an expensive tool. Most vulnerable societies and people cannot have access to an environmentally cooled area, whether it is because they cannot afford it or because their living or working conditions make it impossible to cool the living/working environment. Think about the homeless or those working outdoors.

Another factor making air conditioning a tool that should be put on hold, is the environmental vicious circle created by its use. Most scientific literature recognizes that global warming is here to stay. Air conditioning runs on electricity, the production of which results in CO2 emissions contributing to global warming. A secondary effect is the anthropogenic waste heat they produce, contributing to the urban heat island effect.

A more long-term strategy for heat DRR should focus on the individual, coupled with permanent changes in urban planning. In the first centuries of the past millennium in southern Spain, Arabs put nature to work to cool the environment. Some of their ideas are being used in city planning today, introducing urban gardens and fountains to fight the heat island effect.

As for the individual, electric fans are more environmentally friendly than air conditioners, but above all, a good target communication strategy should be designed so as to reach the population more at risk. Workers laboring outside, such as those in agriculture or construction, have special needs. Not only access to water but also shelter and resting times. A strategy to match their needs and those of the employer can only be attained through a well-designed communication tool directed at employees and employers.

We should think more in long term changes to our DRR heat strategy, less air conditioning and more environmentally friendly solutions and communication.

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